Wednesday, 20 April 2016

MY CONTRIBUTION

           
My contribution towards the 2016 EARTH DAY activities in my country, Nigeria, is through sensitization which is being done through the message below to be: 

  • Sent to friends ,family and associates on Social Media
  • Printed out in form of Banners to be placed in strategic locations        like the estate i live in and the police barrack
  • Made into fliers to be distributed at popular bus stops, market places and offices in my environs.  

SAVE THE PLANET

                            REDUCE!

                     REUSE!!
 
                    RECYCLE!!!

 YOUR ACTION OR INACTION IN ANY OF THESE AREAS WILL EITHER REDUCE OR INCREASE THE INTENSITY OF THE SUN OR GLOBAL WARMING ;-

vDispose  Of your pure water satchet, bottles, dirt nylon bags in dustbins
v  Turn off the air conditioner once in a while and use a fan.
v  Always turn off lights when you leave any room.
v  Use your curtain to help control the temperature in your home.
v  Turn off your computer when you aren’t using it.
v  Plant  a tree to mark that special occasion!
ΓΌ  Stop cutting down trees, incessant felling of trees expose Nigeria to ecological problems.
v  Cooking with firewood is a silent killer and destroys the ozone layer.
v  Stop indiscriminate dumping of refuse into drainages, reduce garbage by recycling and re-use
v  Walk or ride a bicycle
v  Use energy efficient bulbs
v  Use BRT/Public transport rather than individual cars among others.
v  Do not  throw waste out of the window of a moving vehicle
v  The smoke the waste produces when burning them are very poisonous and dangerous to human health and the ENVIRONMENT.

NOTE:
v  Non-Compliance contribute to the warming of the planet earth.
v  There is flooding in many parts of the world including Nigeria because of the rising sea levels brought about by global warming and Heat Stroke killing many in other climes

          v  PLEASE DO THE RIGHT THING!
           v  HELP REDUCE WASTE

          

                SAVE YOUR LIFE & OTHERS

                    SAVE MOTHER EARTH.


Message brought to you by:
Ararat-Jodi Consult
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 www.climatechangewithirene.blogspot


WHAT ACTIVITIES WILL YOU BE INVOLVED IN ON EARTHS DAY 2016?






SHARE YOUR GROUP ACTIVITIES FOR

CELEBRATION OF EARTH DAY WITH

YOUR BLOGGER!!!

YOU AND I CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE (M.A.D)

IN OUR LITTLE WAY TO SAVE PLANET EARTH

Monday, 11 April 2016

EARTH DAY 2016

Earth Day

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Earth Day is an annual event, celebrated on April 22, on which day events worldwide are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection. It was first celebrated in 1970, and is now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network,[1] and celebrated in more than 193 countries each year.[2]
On Earth Day 2016, the landmark Paris Agreement is scheduled to be signed by the United States, China, and some 120 other countries.[3][4] This signing satisfies a key requirement for the entry into force of the historic draft climate protection treaty adopted by consensus of the 195 nations present at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris.
In 1969 at a UNESCO Conference in San Francisco, peace activist John McConnellproposed a day to honor the Earth and the concept of peace, to first be celebrated on March 21, 1970, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere. This day of nature's equipoise was later sanctioned in a Proclamation written by McConnell and signed by Secretary General U Thant at the United Nations. A month later a separate Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-infirst held on April 22, 1970. Nelson was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom Award in recognition of his work.[5] While this April 22 Earth Day was focused on the United States, an organization launched by Denis Hayes, who was the original national coordinator in 1970, took it international in 1990 and organized events in 141 nations.[6][7] Numerous communities celebrate Earth Week, an entire week of activities focused on environmental issues that troubled the world.

Contents

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Earth Day 1970

The first Earth Day family had participants and celebrants in two thousand colleges and universities, roughly ten thousand primary and secondary schools, and hundreds of communities across the United States. More importantly, it "brought 20 million Americans out into the spring sunshine for peaceful demonstrations in favor of environmental reform."[8] It now is observed in 192 countries, and coordinated by the nonprofit Earth Day Network, chaired by the first Earth Day 1970 organizer Denis Hayes, according to whom Earth Day is now "the largest secular holiday in the world, celebrated by more than a billion people every year."[9] Environmental groups have sought to make Earth Day into a day of action which changes human behavior and provokes policy changes.[10]

New York City

In the winter of 1969–1970, a group of students met at Columbia University to hear Denis Hayes talk about his plans for Earth Day. Among the group were Fred Kent, Pete Grannis, and Kristin and William Hubbard. This New York group agreed to head up the New York City part of the national movement. Fred Kent took the lead in renting an office and recruiting volunteers. "The big break came when Mayor Lindsay agreed to shut down Fifth Avenue for the event. A giant cheer went up in the office on that day," according to Kristin Hubbard (now Kristin Alexandre). 'From that time on we used Mayor Lindsay's offices and even his staff. I was Speaker Coordinator but had tremendous help from Lindsay staffer Judith Crichton."
In addition to shutting down Fifth Avenue, Mayor John Lindsay made Central Park available for Earth Day. The crowd was estimated as more than one million—by far the largest in the nation.[citation needed] Since Manhattan was also the home of NBCCBSABCThe New York TimesTime, and Newsweek, it provided the best possible anchor for national coverage from their reporters throughout the country.[11]

Philadelphia


U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie speaking to an estimated 40–60,000 at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia on Earth Day, 1970
U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie was the keynote speaker on Earth Day in Fairmount Park in Philadelphia. Other notable attendees included consumer protection activist and presidential candidate Ralph Nader; Landscape Architect Ian McHarg; Nobel prize-winning Harvard Biochemist, George Wald; U.S. Senate Minority Leader, Hugh Scott; and poet, Allen Ginsberg. Photos, video, and other previously unpublished information are available to the public at EarthWeek1970.org.

Predictions from Earth Day 1970

During the 1970 Earth Day, given assumptions of continued exponential annual population growth of 2% or more[12] and unchanged or increasing climate impact per person, the following predictions were made:[13]
  • Denis Hayes, the chief organizer for the first Earth Day, wrote, "It is already too late to avoid mass starvation."
  • Senator Gaylord Nelson, the founder of Earth Day, stated, "Dr. S. Dillon Ripley, secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, believes that in 25 years, somewhere between 75 and 80 percent of all the species of living animals will be extinct."
  • Peter Gunter, a professor at North Texas State University, stated, "... by 1975 widespread famines will begin in India; these will spread by 1990 to include all of India, Pakistan, China and the Near East, Africa. By the year 2000, or conceivably sooner, South and Central America will exist under famine conditions.... By the year 2000, thirty years from now, the entire world, with the exception of Western Europe, North America, and Australia, will be in famine."
  • Paul Ehrlich, author of The Population Bomb, predicted that between 1980 and 1989, 4 billion people, including 65 million Americans, would starve to death.
  • Life Magazine wrote, "... by 1985 air pollution will have reduced the amount of sunlight reaching earth by one half."
  • Ecologist Kenneth Watt stated, "The world has been chilling sharply for about twenty years. If present trends continue, the world will be about four degrees colder for the global mean temperature in 1990, but eleven degrees colder in the year 2000. This is about twice what it would take to put us into an ice age."
  • Watt also stated, "By the year 2000, if present trends continue, we will be using up crude oil at such a rate…that there won’t be any more crude oil."

Earth Day 1990

Mobilizing 200 million people in 141 countries and lifting the status of environmental issues onto the world stage, Earth Day activities in 1990 gave a huge boost to recycling efforts worldwide and helped pave the way for the 1992United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. Unlike the first Earth Day in 1970, this 20th Anniversary was waged with stronger marketing tools, greater access to television and radio, and multimillion-dollar budgets.[14]
Two separate groups formed to sponsor Earth Day events in 1990: The Earth Day 20 Foundation, assembled byEdward Furia (Project Director of Earth Week in 1970), and Earth Day 1990, assembled by Denis Hayes (National Coordinator for Earth Day 1970). Senator Gaylord Nelson, the original founder of Earth Day, was honorary chairman for both groups. The two did not combine forces over disagreements about leadership of combined organization and incompatible structures and strategies.[14] Among the disagreements, key Earth Day 20 Foundation organizers were critical of Earth Day 1990 for including on their board Hewlett-Packard, a company that at the time was the second-biggest emitter of chlorofluorocarbons in Silicon Valley and refused to switch to alternative solvents.[14] In terms of marketing, Earth Day 20 had a grassroots approach to organizing and relied largely on locally based groups like theNational Toxics Campaign, a Boston-based coalition of 1,000 local groups concerned with industrial pollution. Earth Day 1990 employed strategies including focus group testing, direct mail fund raising, and email marketing.[14]
The Earth Day 20 Foundation highlighted its April 22 activities in George, Washington, near the Columbia River with a live satellite phone call with members of the historic Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb who called from their base camp on Mount Everest to pledge their support for world peace and attention to environmental issues.[15] The Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb was led by Jim Whittaker, the first American to summit Mt. Everest (many years earlier), and marked the first time in history that mountaineers from the United StatesSoviet Union, andChina had roped together to climb a mountain, let alone Mt. Everest.[15] The group also collected more than two tons of trash (transported down the mountain by support groups along the way) that was left behind on Mount Everest from previous climbing expeditions. The master of ceremonies for the Columbia Gorge event was the TV star, John Ratzenberger, from "Cheers", and the headlining musician was the "Father of Rock and Roll," Chuck Berry.[15]
Warner Bros. Records released an Earth Day-themed single in 1990 entitled "Tomorrow's World", written by Kix Brooks (who would later become one-half ofBrooks & Dunn) and Pam Tillis.[16] The song featured vocals from Lynn AndersonButch BakerShane BarmbyBilly HillSuzy Bogguss, Kix Brooks, T. Graham BrownThe Burch SistersHolly DunnFoster & LloydVince GillWilliam Lee GoldenHighway 101Shelby LynneJohnny RodriguezDan Seals,Les Taylor, Pam Tillis, Mac Wiseman, and Kevin Welch. It charted at number 74 on the Hot Country Songs chart dated May 5, 1990.[17]

Earth Day 2000

Earth Day 2000 combined the ambitious spirit of the first Earth Day with the international grassroots activism of Earth Day 1990. This was the first year that Earth Day used the Internet as its principal organizing tool, and it proved invaluable nationally and internationally. Kelly Evans, a professional political organizer, served as executive director of the 2000 campaign. The event ultimately enlisted more than 5,000 environmental groups outside the United States, reaching hundreds of millions of people in a record 183 countries.[18] Leonardo DiCaprio was the official host for the event,[18] and about 400,000 participants stood in the cold rain during the course of the day.

Subsequent Earth Day events


Earth Day 2007 at San Diego City College in San DiegoCalifornia
To turn Earth Day into a sustainable annual event rather than one that occurred every 10 years, Nelson and Bruce Anderson, New Hampshire's lead organizers in 1990, formed Earth Day USA. Building on the momentum created by thousands of community organizers around the world, Earth Day USA coordinated the next five Earth Day celebrations through 1995, including the launch of EarthDay.org. Following the 25th Anniversary in 1995, the coordination baton was handed to Earth Day Network.
As the millennium approached, Hayes agreed to spearhead another campaign, this time focusing on global warmingand pushing for clean energy. The April 22 Earth Day in 2000 combined the big-picture feistiness of the first Earth Day with the international grassroots activism of Earth Day 1990. For 2000, Earth Day had the internet to help link activists around the world. By the time April 22 came around, 5,000 environmental groups around the world were on board reaching out to hundreds of millions of people in a record 184 countries. Events varied: A talking drum chain traveled from village to village in GabonAfrica, for example, while hundreds of thousands of people gathered on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., USA.
Earth Day 2007 was one of the largest Earth Days to date, with many people participating in the activities in thousands of places including KievUkraine;CaracasVenezuelaTuvaluManilaPhilippinesTogoMadridSpainLondon; and New York.
On 2012 Californians for Population Stabilization (CAPS) group brings back Earth Day to human overpopulation as the main concern.[19] Earth day founder Gaylord Nelson stated that he was disappointed in followers for neglecting overpopulation.[20]

The Earth Day name

According to Nelson, the moniker "Earth Day" was "an obvious and logical name" suggested by "a number of people" in the fall of 1969, including, he writes, both "a friend of mine who had been in the field of public relations" and "a New York advertising executive," Julian Koenig.[21] Koenig, who had been on Nelson's organizing committee in 1969, has said that the idea came to him by the coincidence of his birthday with the day selected, April 22; "Earth Day" rhyming with "birthday," the connection seemed natural.[22][23] Other names circulated during preparations—Nelson himself continued to call it the National Environment Teach-In, but national coordinator Denis Hayes used the term Earth Day in his communications and press coverage of the event was "practically unanimous" in its use of "Earth Day," so the name stuck.[21] The introduction of the name "Earth Day" was also claimed by John McConnell (see "Equinox Earth Day," below).[24]

Earth Day Canada

The first Canadian Earth Day was held on Thursday, September 11, 1980, and was organized by Paul D. Tinari, then a graduate student in Engineering Physics/Solar Engineering at Queen's University. Flora MacDonald, then MP for Kingston and the Islands and Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs, officially opened Earth Day Week on September 6, 1980 with a ceremonial tree planting and encouraged MPs and MPPs across the country to declare a cross-Canada annual Earth Day. The principal activities taking place on the first Earth Day included educational lectures given by experts in various environmental fields, garbage and litter pick-up by students along city roads and highways as well as tree plantings to replace the trees killed by Dutch Elm Disease.[25][26]

Paul Tinari officially launching the first Canadian Earth Day on September 11, 1980 – waiting to speak are Flora MacDonald MP, secretary of state for external affairs, Ken Keyes, mayor of Kingston, and Dr. Ronald Watts, principal of Queen's University
Earth Day Canada (EDC) is a national environmental charity founded in 1990 that provides Canadians with practical knowledge, tools, and simple easy-to-accomplish actions to support a healthier environment through EDC's year-round and award-winning programs.
Education: EcoKids supports teachers and students, grades K-8, with free educational resources, curriculum-linked lesson plans including ESL and FSL, and homework help and games for students. EcoMentors offers youth the training and resources they need to facilitate local environmental education workshops with their peers and other young Canadians.
Action: EDC's challenges, contests and campaigns promote practical, culturally relevant and cost-effective solutions to help individual Canadians support a healthier environment. EDC also encourages action by supporting individuals and community groups in the organization and delivery of local Earth Day (April 22) events.
Recognition and Financial Support: Toyota Earth Day Scholarship Program recognizes tomorrow's environmental leaders providing twenty $5 000 scholarships to graduating high school students going on to post-secondary education in the discipline of their choice. The Hometown Heroes Award Program recognizes environmental leaders at the community level with an individual and a group award (each with a cash-prize of $10 000), and business leaders with a small business award. Earth Day Canada's Community Environment Fund funds sustainable community projects in Ontario providing grants of up to $20 000 to schools and not-for-profit organizations.
The Diversity Engagement and Inclusion Initiative helps the environmental sector to better communicate with, engage and activate Canada's diverse social and cultural communities. The Employee Engagement program works with employers to achieve business and sustainability goals through inclusion of best practices.

History of the Equinox Earth Day (March 20)

The equinoctial Earth Day is celebrated on the March equinox (around March 20) to mark the precise moment of astronomical spring in the Northern Hemisphere, and of astronomical autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. An equinox in astronomy is that point in time (not a whole day) when the Sun is directly above the Earth's equator, occurring around March 20 and September 23 each year. In most cultures, the equinoxes and solstices are considered to start or separate the seasons.
John McConnell[27] first introduced the idea of a global holiday called "Earth Day" at the 1969 UNESCO Conference on the Environment. The first Earth Dayproclamation was issued by San Francisco Mayor Joseph Alioto on March 21, 1970. Celebrations were held in various cities, such as San Francisco and in Davis, California with a multi-day street party. UN Secretary-General U Thant supported McConnell's global initiative to celebrate this annual event; and on February 26, 1971, he signed a proclamation to that effect, saying:
May there be only peaceful and cheerful Earth Days to come for our beautiful Spaceship Earth as it continues to spin and circle in frigid space with its warm and fragile cargo of animate life.[28]
United Nations secretary-general Kurt Waldheim observed Earth Day with similar ceremonies on the March equinox in 1972, and the United Nations Earth Day ceremony has continued each year since on the day of the March equinox (the United Nations also works with organizers of the April 22 global event).Margaret Mead added her support for the equinox Earth Day, and in 1978 declared:
"Earth Day is the first holy day which transcends all national borders, yet preserves all geographical integrities, spans mountains and oceans and time belts, and yet brings people all over the world into one resonating accord, is devoted to the preservation of the harmony in nature and yet draws upon the triumphs of technology, the measurement of time, and instantaneous communication through space.
Earth Day draws on astronomical phenomena in a new way – which is also the most ancient way – by using the vernal Equinox, the time when the Sun crosses the equator making the length of night and day equal in all parts of the Earth. To this point in the annual calendar, EARTH DAY attaches no local or divisive set of symbols, no statement of the truth or superiority of one way of life over another. But the selection of the March Equinox makes planetary observance of a shared event possible, and a flag which shows the Earth, as seen from space, appropriate."[29]
At the moment of the equinox, it is traditional to observe Earth Day by ringing the Japanese Peace Bell, which was donated by Japan to the United Nations.[30] Over the years, celebrations have occurred in various places worldwide at the same time as the UN celebration. On March 20, 2008, in addition to the ceremony at the United Nations, ceremonies were held in New Zealand, and bells were sounded in California, Vienna, Paris, Lithuania, Tokyo, and many other locations. The equinox Earth Day at the UN is organized by the Earth Society Foundation.[31]
Earth Day ringing the peace bell is celebrated around the world in many towns, ringing the Peace Bell in Vienna,[32] Berlin, and elsewhere. A memorable event took place at the UN in Geneva, celebrating a Minute for Peace ringing the Japanese Shinagawa Peace Bell with the help of the Geneva Friendship Association and the Global Youth Foundation,[33] directly after in deep mourning about the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant catastrophe 10 days before.
Beside the Spring Equinox for the Northern Hemisphere, the observance of the Spring Equinox for the Southern Hemisphere is of equal importance ! It is a "new sign of hope" for Peace that the International Day of Peace[34] is celebrated on the Spring Equinox of the South! right along the original intentions of John McConnell, U-Thant, Muller, Mead,...

April 22 observances

Growing eco-activism before Earth Day 1970

In 1968, Morton Hilbert and the U.S. Public Health Service organized the Human Ecology Symposium, an environmental conference for students to hear from scientists about the effects of environmental degradation on human health.[35] This was the beginning of Earth Day. For the next two years, Hilbert and students worked to plan the first Earth Day.[36] In April 1970—along with a federal proclamation from U.S. Sen. Gaylord Nelson—the first Earth Day was held.[37]
Project Survival, an early environmentalism-awareness education event, was held at Northwestern University on January 23, 1970. This was the first of several events held at university campuses across the United States in the lead-up to the first Earth Day. Also, Ralph Nader began talking about the importance of ecology in 1970.
The 1960s had been a very dynamic period for ecology in the US. Pre-1960 grassroots activism against DDT in Nassau County, New York, had inspiredRachel Carson to write her bestseller, Silent Spring (1962).

Significance of April 22

Nelson chose the date in order to maximize participation on college campuses for what he conceived as an "environmental teach-in". He determined the week of April 19–25 was the best bet as it did not fall during exams or spring breaks.[38] Moreover, it did not conflict with religious holidays such as Easter or Passover, and was late enough in spring to have decent weather. More students were likely to be in class, and there would be less competition with other mid-week events—so he chose Wednesday, April 22. The day also fell after the anniversary of the birth of noted conservationist John Muir.

Global selfie - Earth Day, April 22, 2014.
Unbeknownst to Nelson,[39] April 22, 1970, was coincidentally the 100th anniversary of the birth ofVladimir Lenin, when translated to the Gregorian calendar (which the Soviets adopted in 1918). Timereported that some suspected the date was not a coincidence, but a clue that the event was "a Communist trick", and quoted a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution as saying, "subversive elements plan to make American children live in an environment that is good for them."[40]J. Edgar Hoover, director of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, may have found the Lenin connection intriguing; it was alleged the FBI conducted surveillance at the 1970 demonstrations.[41] The idea that the date was chosen to celebrate Lenin's centenary still persists in some quarters,[42][43] an idea borne out by the similarity with the subbotnik instituted by Lenin in 1920 as days on which people would have to do community service, which typically consisted in removing rubbish from public property and collecting recyclable material. Subbotniks were also imposed on other countries within the compass of Soviet power, including Eastern Europe, and at the height of its power the Soviet Union established a nationwide subbotnik to be celebrated on Lenin's birthday, April 22, which had been proclaimed a national holiday celebrating communism by Nikita Khrushchev in 1955.

Earth Day anthems

See also: Earth Anthem

Earth Anthem (Abhay K)

Our cosmic oasis, cosmic blue pearl
the most beautiful planet in the universe
all the continents and the oceans of the world
united we stand as flora and fauna
united we stand as species of one earth
black, brown, white, different colours
we are humans, the earth is our home.

Our cosmic oasis, cosmic blue pearl
the most beautiful planet in the universe
all the people and the nations of the world
all for one and one for all
united we unfurl the blue marble flag
black, brown, white, different colours
we are humans, the earth is our home.
"Earth Anthem" by Abhay K
(Under CC by ND-NC)[44]
There are many songs that are performed on Earth Day, that generally fall into two categories. Popular songs by contemporary artists not specific to Earth Day that are under copyright or new lyrics adapted to children's songs. UNESCO has termed Indian poet-diplomat Abhay Kumar's idea of an official Earth Anthem as a creative and inspiring thought that would contribute to bringing the world together.[45] Kumar's "Earth Anthem" has been translated into eight languages including all official languages of the United Nations viz. Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish.[46] The other two languages are Hindi and Nepali. It was launched in June 2013 on the occasion of the World Environment Day byKapil Sibal and Shashi Tharoor, Union Ministers of India at a function organized by the Indian Council of Cultural Relations in New Delhi.[47] India's Central Board of Secondary Education or CBSE has started using it for educational purposes.[48] Earth Anthem has also been used by partner schools of British Council Schools Online,[49] Regent School, Abuja,[50] Euro School, Kathmandu,[51] Loreto Day School Kolkata [52] Assam Valley School among others.[53] It is also supported by the global organization Habitat For Humanity.[54]
The US Consul General Jennifer McIntyre has called Kumar's Earth Anthem a significant contribution to Earth Day and truly an anthem for the Earth.[55] Academy Award winner Hollywood director Jeffrey D. Brown called it a joyous celebration of common humanity.[56]
Bollywood actress Manisha Koirala and singing nun Ani Choying Drolma have advocated an official Earth Anthem and appreciated the work being done bypoet-diplomat Abhay K towards an official Earth Anthem.[57] Indian film-maker Shyam Benegal has called multi-language lyrics extremely inspiring.[58]

Earth Day Anthem (William Wallace)

The "Ode to Joy" melody by Beethoven, the official anthem of the European Union, also is performed on the Earth Day. Lyrics for the Earth Day Anthem set to "Ode to Joy" are as follows:
Joyful joyful we adore our Earth in all its wonderment
Simple gifts of nature that all join into a paradise
Now we must resolve to protect her
Show her our love throughout all time
With our gentle hand and touch
We make our home a newborn world
Now we must resolve to protect her
Show her our love throughout all time
With our gentle hand and touch
We make our home a newborn world[59]

SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA

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